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Video: Diseases Of The Thyroid Gland: Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment

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Video: Approach to a Thyroid Nodule - causes, investigation and treatment 2023, February
Diseases Of The Thyroid Gland: Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment
Diseases Of The Thyroid Gland: Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment
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Diseases of the thyroid gland: diagnosis, symptoms, treatment

The whirlwind of the modern world is imprinted on our behavior and condition: we are in a hurry, fuss, get tired, get irritated. And few people associate these symptoms with disorders of the endocrine system. And diseases of the thyroid gland occupy the second place among pathologies, the growth of which is 5% per year according to the WHO. Contrary to beliefs, the disease occurs not only due to a lack of iodine in the body, therefore, self-medication with iodine-containing drugs is not only ineffective, but also harmful. The correct diagnosis can only be established by an endocrinologist based on examination, analysis of symptoms and laboratory results.

The structure of the larynx and the thyroid gland
The structure of the larynx and the thyroid gland

Diagnosis of thyroid diseases

The danger of thyroid disease is attributing symptoms of everyday life and ignoring them until structural, visible abnormalities appear. Sometimes they find out about the disease by chance, donating blood for hormones.

If you suspect a thyroid disease, a blood test is prescribed for the content of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine). In addition to analyzes, they examine the appearance (condition of nails, hair, skin on the bends of the elbows), interrogate and observe the patient's behavior.

Possible questions from an endocrinologist

general:

whether there have been changes in well-being recently;

  • whether changes in blood pressure were observed;
  • whether you noticed increased sweating;
  • how they were ill in the near future and how they were treated;
  • whether there have been changes in taste;
  • tell us about the general emotional state: how do you react to failure, success, etc.;
  • whether there are headaches, how often;
  • do you react to weather changes;
  • for men:

    whether there has been a decrease in potency recently.

    women:

    how the menstrual cycle has changed: profusion of discharge, soreness, frequency.

    In case of unfavorable tests, identification of a complex of characteristic symptoms, the presence of seals, an increase in the size of the gland, hardware diagnostics are prescribed: ultrasound or X-ray. In controversial cases, a tissue biopsy is performed. There are two types of thyroid disorders: functional and structural. Treatment is chosen depending on the diagnosis, the dosage of drugs is selected on the basis of hormonal research.

    Functional disorders of the thyroid gland

    The functional disorders of the thyroid gland include hypothyroidism (insufficient production of hormones) and thyrotoxicosis (excessive production of hormones).

    Hypothyroidism: symptoms, treatment

    Symptoms of hypothyroidism are often disguised as other conditions: depression, menstrual irregularities, lethargy. This complicates the timeliness of contacting the right specialist and making the correct diagnosis. Among the characteristic signs of hypothyroidism are:

    hair loss, brittleness and dullness,

    • dry skin of the face and individual areas of the skin,
    • decreased performance, weakness, rapid fatigue (which is often mistaken for ordinary laziness),
    • impairment of memory, attention,
    • chilliness, cold limbs.

    When diagnosed with hypothyroidism, hormone replacement therapy is prescribed to compensate for the lack of production of its own thyroid hormones. Such drugs are taken for life with a gradual increase in dosage.

    Thyrotoxicosis: symptoms, treatment

    A persistent increase in thyroid hormones in the blood is called thyrotoxicosis. It leads to the following symptoms:

    increased irritability,

    • sleep disorders
    • persistent sweating
    • weight loss
    • a slight increase in temperature (which you may not even notice),
    • heart rhythm disturbances.

    With thyrotoxicosis, drugs are prescribed that block the production of hormones - thyreostatics. To achieve the desired hormonal balance, courses of thyreostatics alternate with hormone replacement therapy.

    Structural disorders of the thyroid gland

    Structural disorders of the thyroid gland include adenoma, cysts, nodules. Symptoms: visual increase in size, compaction on palpation, goiter formation. In the early stages, drug treatment is prescribed, in difficult cases, surgery followed by HRT.

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